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       BOROWIACY        BOROWIACY                         






A Polish ethnic group, the Borowiacy traditionally inhabit the area of the Tuchola forests near Tuchola in Eastern Pomerania

The Kujavian-Pomeranian Voivodship (in Polish województwo kujawsko-pomorskie) is an administrative region or voivodship in central-northern Poland.











WARMIAK  WARMIAK                                         



Warmiak - a Polish ethnic group from Warmia, mostly Roman Catholics.

Between the XIV and XVII centuries, settlers from northern Mazovia moved to former teritories of Old Prussians following their conquest by Teutonic Order.

Since the bishopry of Warmia became part of Poland in 1466, most of Warmiaks remained catholics, while Mazurs became protestants. They populated the areas around Olsztyn/Allenstein.


  Warmia i Mazury   road map

 administrative map








  Warmia i Mazury (officially, the Warmińsko-Mazurskie Voivodship) is an administrative region or voivodship of north-eastern Poland. The capital is Olsztyn.


    MORAVIAN  MORAVIAN                                    



A Moravian is a Protestant belonging to a religious movement that originated in Moravia, Czech Republic, which was brought to the United States in the early 1700s by immigrants originating from the German Anabaptists. The original attempt to found a Moravian community was in Georgia, but that attempt failed. The Moravians later found a home in Pennsylvania, where the colony provided some of the greatest religious freedom to be found in the world. The towns of Bethlehem, Nazareth and Emmaus, Pennsylvania were founded as Moravian communities. Later, colonies were founded in North Carolina, starting with Wachovia, and later Bethabara, Bethania and Salem (now Winston-Salem). Bethlehem became the headquarters of the northern church, and Winston-Salem became the headquarters of the southern church. The Moravian denomination persists in America to this day, with congregations in eighteen states. There are also congregations in three Canadian provinces. There are four provinces in North America: Northern, Southern, Alaska, and Labrador.

The establishment of the Moravian church as a Christian church occurred as a reaction against certain alleged errors within the Roman Catholic church. This movement was started by a priest named Jan Hus. Bohemia and Moravia had been Orthodox, and had been forced to convert to Catholicism, even though Rome said that it recognized the Orthodox presence in the area. Jan Hus simply wanted to return the church in Bohemia and Moravia to the practices it had under Orthodoxy; namely married priests, liturgy in the language of the people, lay people receiving communion in both kinds, and the elimination of indulgences and the idea of purgatory. This movement had royal support and a certain independence for a while but was eventually forced to be subject to Rome. Some of the Hussites struck a deal with Rome that allowed them most of what they wanted. These were called the Utraquists. The other followers of Hus remained outside Roman Catholicism and within fifty years of Hus's death organized the Bohemian Brethren or Unity of the Brethren. The Moravians were some of the earliest Protestants, rebelling against the authority of Rome  more than a hundred years before Martin Luther.


Czech homelands of Bohemia and Moravia

           Czech homelands of Bohemia and Moravia

ПOМАКИ  PОMAKS                                           




Pomaks are those whose mother tongue is Pomakika (name in Greek – Πομάκοι/ Pomakci (name in their language); most linguists call that language Pomak and, sometimes, Bulgarian. The Pomak language belongs to the linguistic family of the Southern Slavic languages, and, within them, to the linguistic group of Bulgaro-Macedonian. There is no information on Pomak dialects. Although there is no written tradition, the appropriate alphabet to write the language is the Cyrillic. It is generally believed that Pomak is one of the various Bulgaro-Macedonian dialects which existed in the Southern Balkans before the emergence of modern nation-states and their corresponding literary languages.

Pomaks live in the three departments of Western Thrace: they are the main component of the Muslim (in fact today Turkish) minority in Xanthi. There have not been any official statistics since 1951 (and the preceding statistical data are not very trustworthy). The best estimate for the Pomaks today is a figure around 30,000.














Pomaks, who live in the provinces of Xanthi and Rhodope in Greece, are probably the descendants of Agrianes, a Thracian tribe of Rhodope Mountains. Anthropologists believe that ancient Thrace were probably a blond or red haired, blue eyed people who inhabited the vast area extending from Northern Aegean Sea to what is now the Czech Republic.

xanthi               Map showing East Macedonia and Thrace periphery in Greece East Macedonia












 rodhopi                                                 evros








"Pomaks" (ethnic Bulgarian Muslims) - 3%

 Pomaks.  Ethnic Bulgarian Muslims or "Pomaks" are a distinct group of Slavic descent, whose ancestors converted from Orthodox Christianity to Islam. Most are Muslim, although a number have become atheists or converted back to Christianity. 

'Pomaks' is the name of pretty large group of people who live
mainly in Rhodopi mountains (southern Bulgaria, close to the
border with Greece). They have muslim names and speak very
ancient bulgarian language (bulgarian belongs to the group of
slavic languages). Their ancestors were slavic christian people
who accepted muslim religion. This fact took place in 16th and
17th centuries. There were several ways to become muslim that
time, when Bulgaria like all Balkan peninsula, was part of the Ottoman empire






Pomak - Pomatški

Indo-European / Slavic / Southern / Eastern branch

The Pomaks live in Western Thrace (Greece). In the past two decades, a few thousand of them have migrated to the prefecture of Attici. They speak the Rhodope dialect. about 30.000 Pomaks in Greek Thrace, 270.000 Pomaks in Turkey and around 200,000 Pomaks in Bulgaria. However there are a lot more Greek Pomaks who live in Germany and in other parts of Greece -mainly in Athens, or working as builders in islands such as Kos, Rhodes and Myconos.


The Pomaks of Europe.

Latest estimates from the World Evangelization Research Center.

Group Name



1995 Population

% Christian

Scripture Availability

Jesus Film

Christian Broadcasts

Mission Agenicies



rhodope bulgarski









pomak (bulgarski)









rhodope bulgarski


































БОШЊАЦИ  BOŠNJACI                                                          





Bosniaks (natively: Bošnjaci), previously known as Ethnical Muslims of Yugoslavia, are SLAVS who were converted to Islam during the Ottoman period (15-19 centhury) Bosniaks are named after Bosnia, the westernmost Balkan region held by the Turks. Most Muslim inhabitants ofBosnia and Herzegovina declare themselves ethnically Bosniak, and also some Muslims ofSerbia and Montenegro (in the Sandžak region). Note that other Muslims of the Balkans aren't Bosniaks; rather, they'reAlbanians and Turks.

There are conflicting claims on how the population in Bosnia was converted to Islam. A large segment of Bosnian population at the time were members of an indigenous Bosnian Church (krstjani, "Christians") and were considered heretics by both theRoman Catholic Church and the  Orthodox Church, and they are said to have willingly embraced Islam. Some of the converts may have been Bogomils or Patarenes.

Many Christian children became Muslims by getting forcibly enrolled as Janičari, into the Ottoman army. Janissaries, however, had no right to marry until 1566, and before and after that were used throughout the Ottoman Empire; their descendants do not comprise a major part of Bosniak population.







































































Map of Bosnia






































Drzave.jpg (94804 bytes)










            BOKELJI  BOKELS                                               






Boka Kotorska (Bay of Kotor)

Boka Kotorska (Bay of Kotor, Bocca di Cattaro) in Montenegro is a winding bay on the Adriatic sea. It is considered to be Europe's southernmost fjord and is composed of four smaller bays, named after the towns of Kotor, Tivat , Herceg-Novi, and Risan.

The traditional inhabitants of Boka are Serbs with some Croats (NB not Montenegrins, which are from Cetinje etc), and they are often collectively referred to as the Bokelji.






The three counties making up Boka Kotorska have a total population of 71,443 of which 76% are Serb Orthodox  and 11% are Catholics:

  • Kotor 23,481 people image:Kotor-bay.JPG


  • Tivat 13,991     
  •     Tivat 1889 is the youngest city in Boka       



  • Herceg-Novi 33,971      Panorama grada








Naša mila Boko, nevjesto Jadrana,
Pokrivena nebom k'o od plave svile,
Ljepša si od tvoje primorkinje vile
I svjetlija od njenog đerdana.

Nikada se tebe nagledao ne bi',
No da mi je jedno: da postanem valom
Sinjega ti mora, pa pred tvojim žalom
Da vječito šumim i da pjevam tebi.

I da s tobom gledam na tvoj Lovćen plavi,
Pa jednoga dana kad se Gospod javi,
Kad orlovi naši visoko zabrode

I sa tvojih ruka panu gvožđa tvrda,                   
Da pobjednu himnu slušam s tvojih brda
I da s tobom slavim dan zlatne slobode!







                                                                                                  the southernmost fjord in Europe

                                                                                                  And I wonder how sun can go down

                                                                                                  Vwen this beauty elsewhere cannot be found


                                                                                                              Lj. NENADOVIĆ




















BUNJEVCI  БУЊЕВЦИ                                    








BUNJEVCI are a Croatian sub-group, which one part colonized Lika and the Croatian Littoral, while the other part moved for the most part into Bačka. As a whole group it is only this second branch which is considered, which is why the name Bunjevci is understood to be the Bačka Bunjevci.

The name Bunjevac is interpreted by writers differently.

Fr. Marijan Lanošović derives it from the river Buna near Mostar. These ideas are later represended by: Vuk St. Karadžić, Rudolf Horvat, Ivan Ivanić, Ivan Antonović, Istvan Ivanyi, and Mijo Mandić. Even the Bunjevci's folk phrases say "Our grandfathers come afar - from the place of the Buna river".

Fr. Martin Nedić states that the Bunjevci got their name from being followers of Pope Boniface's (Bunjo), similar to the early Christians being called Efazenics for being followers of Mark od Efeza.

Radivoj Simonović holds that the Bunjevci were first Vlachs who, to escape the Ottomans moved into Dalmatia where they accepted the Catholic faith.

Bogoslav Kosović derives the Bunjevac's name from the word "bunja" which was a specific type of house in which they lived.

Ivan Kukuljević believes that the name Bunjevac has a scornful name like Vlach, Šokac, Majdak, Bodul, etc.

Bunjevci and Sokci CroatiansHistory

After the battle of Mohacs , (Mohač ), (1526) the majority of the Hungarian population out of fear from the Turks moved out of Bačka and into northen Hungary, which the fertile and deserted plain enticed the new settlers from Slavonia, Bosnia, and Dalmatia. By 1565, among these settlers, one could already find the Bunjevac's last names in Subotica, however in historical documents, it is in 1620 that the Bunjevci are mentioned as Dalmatians.

From that point on, there are more references to the Bunjevci in Bačka, who in many waves moved from northern Dalmatia, Lika, and the Croatian littoral, and some from Bosnia, but their arrival is documented at the end of the 18th century.



‘Korzo’ in SUBOTICA



 a tipical SALAŠ around SUBOTICA

The main settling of Bunjevci into western Bačka began in 1686 under the leadership of the Franciscans. So that the Vienna Royal house could have an army against the Turks, they gave the Bunjevci land, under the condition that they fight for the Emperor's army. Accepting that agreement, the Bunjevci began to settle in two main groups. The first settlers in 1686 were guided by the Franciscans, while the other group in 1687 were lead by the Bunjevac leaders Dujam Marković and Juraj Vidaković. They in the most part moved into northern and central Bačka, while some moved into the Baranja, Pecs, and the Csongarad županijas. Their fighters were under the command of their captains, Luka Sučić, Dujam Marković, and Juraj Vidaković immediately passed into the emperor's army which were a big factor in pressing the Turks out of Bačka.


Historic documents also refer to Bunjevci as Dalmatians, Catholic Serbs (Catholic Rascians) as well as Bosnians. In October 1918, they held a national convention in Subotica and decided to secede Vojvodina from Hungary and join Serbia. This was confirmed at the Great National Assembly of the Serbs, Bunjevci and other Slavs in Novi Sad,  which proclaimed unification with the Kingdom of Serbia in November of 1918.

Nationally, the Magyar censa from 1880 onward to 1910 numbered the Bunjevci distinctly, separate from the Serbs even though they were referred to as Catholic Serbs. The creation of the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (renamed Yugoslavia  in 1929) brought the Bačka Bunjevci in contact with the Croats. Through political rapprochement, some Bunjevci began developping a Croat national feeling. This was continued in Communist Yugoslavia which on the census of 1948]] did not officially recognize the Bunjevci counting all declared as such to be nothing more than Bačka Croats.

The 1990's saw a comeback of the Bunjevac national movement with their official recognition as a minority group in Serbia in 1990. In the 1991 and 2002 censa the community was divided around the issue of the name: 20,000 declared themselves Bunjevci in terms of ethnicity whereas some 25,000 opted for the Croatdom. Save for some colonists who arrived after 1945 from Croatia, both halves of the community consider themselves ethnologically as Bunjevci, although each subscribing to its interpretation of the term.

Som of Famous BUNJEVCI



JOSIP PANČIĆ  biologist







Podvikuje bunjevačka vila
(Pivana prvi put 1878)


Podvikuje bunjevačka vila,
Iz oblaka razastrla krila:
„Oj Bunjevče, probudi se sada,
Starešino subatičkog* grada!

Kad ti vidiš cimer od Kasine,
Der proslavi bunjevačko ime,
l pohiti da s' upišeš tamo,
Tebe zovu braća već ovamo.

Nemoj brate ti oklivat tako,
Već zapiši tvoje ime 'vako:
„Ja sam sinak subatičkog grada,
Neću više da moj narod strada!"

Da ne znadu još ni da ga ima,
Jer ja hoću da ga svaki štima!
Ne zovemo samo bogataše,
Već i manje stanovnike naše.

l držimo se skupa sloge tvrde,
Ne dajmo se da nas drugi grde.
Nema više tu kod nas partaje,
'Ko je počo i onaj se kaje.

Već Bunjevče hodi vamo pobro,
Pa ćeš vidit da će biti dobro:
U Kasinu upiši se sada,
Da i tvoje dično ime vlada!

Zove tebe društvo od Kasine:
„Oj Bunjevče, subatički sine,
Ako bude u nas sloga taka,
Bunjevačka biće snaga jaka!"

l dođite i vi gospodari,
Kojigod za Bunjevce mari,
A kojigod Bunjevce ostavi,
Ti prokletstvo na njega postavi.

Ter im reci da su izrodice,
Bunjevačkog roda izdajice;
Bunjevac Bunjevca koji poku
Bog mu dao oma da poludi.

Kolo igra tamburica svira,
Pisma ječi, ne da noći mira.
Svud’ se čuje, svud’ se širom znade
Da Bunjevac dušu ne izdade.
Veseli se, svaki mu se divi,
nek’ se znade, da Bunjevac živi.
Veseli se, svaki mu se divi,
nek’ se znade, da Bunjevac živi.
Nije majka rodila junaka
K’o što j’ sinak divnih Bunjevaka,
Nit’ će majka roditi junaka
K’o Bunjevca, takvog veseljaka.
Kolo vodi, svaki mu se divi
nek’ se znade, da Bunjevac živi.
Kolo vodi, svaki mu se divi
nek’ se znade, da Bunjevac živi.
Ni divojke ne biše u nane
K’o što j’ ćerka bunjevačke grane.
Svilu nosi, a zlatom se krasi,
Crne oči, crne su joj vlasi.
Kolo igra, svaki joj se divi
nek’ se znade, da Bunjevac živi.
Kolo igra, svaki joj se divi
nek’ se znade, da Bunjevac živi.
Ori pismo, tambur tamburice,
Nek’ se čuju daleko ti žice,
Nek’ se gori a i doli znade
Da Bunjevac dušu ne izdade.
Prelo kupi, svaki mu se divi
nek’ se znade, da Bunjevac živi.
Prelo kupi, svaki mu se divi
nek’ se znade, da Bunjevac živi.








Salaš i đeram




Lipa naša                                              
od salaša
do salaša
kao snaša

Lipa naša
njiva Bačka

                                                            Lipa naša
                                                            dar kolača

                                                            Lipa naša
                                                            uzduž lanca
                                                           žar kosača

                                                                      J. Kopilović











Hej, salaši (Zvonko Bogdan)

1. Hej, salaši na severu Bačke,
   u vama su pisme bunjevačke.                                          
   A tambura tako lipo svira,     |
   ko da note par slavuja bira.   |
R. Ni svatova nigdi taki' nema,
     ko kad bačo kćer na udaj' sprema.
     Νa snaši se bili šlajer vije,
     ko kad zimi snig salaš pokrije.
2. Hej, Bunjevci na severu Bačke!
   Sačuvajte pisme bunjevačke!
   Pivajte ih još puno godina,
   vaša j' grana mala, al' je fina.
R. I lumpujte, al' lipo polako.
   Nek se divi i nek vidi svako.
   Pa nek vranci pokidaju štrange,
   kad se krenu momci na vašange
                                                         ZVONKO BOGDAN
                                                                                             Oun of the greatest BUNJEVAC

                                                                                                            A living legend














                                                       HRVATI                                                                       CROATS






Molise Croats








Molise Croats are Croatian subgroup, found in the Molise  region of Italy. They form majority in the villages Acquaviva Collecroce, (croatian/hrvatski KRUČ ), San Felice del Molise, croatian/hrvatski FILIČ ili STIFILIČ ) and Montemitro, ( croatian/hrvatski MUNDIMITAR).

There forefathers came in the 15th and the 16th centuries in several waves fleeing from Turkish suppression.  

There are about 1.700 of Molise Croatian in these villages. Additionally, there are about 1.000 people in other parts of Italy in emigrants in other countries originating from these villages

Of all the members most speak Italian, along with Molise Croatian, and some know literary Croatian Molise Croatian has some connections to Croatian, and is considered to be a diaspora language due to the many differences.

















          JANJEVCI  ЈАЊЕВЦИ                                          








 view of JANJEVO (with the church of St. Nicholas ),

 Serbia and Montenegro

 province of Kosovo and Metohija




JANJEVCI are inhabitants of the  SERBIA and MONTENEGRO, province of KOSOVO AND METOHIJA ,  village  of JANJEVO municipality of LIPLJAN,  and surrounding villages, located near PRIŠTINA, as well as villages centered around LETNICA near VITINA.

IN the village of JANJEVO, the ‘KOSOVO CROATS’, also known as JANJEVCI  made up the two-thirds of the population.

As well as Janjevo, Lipljan town also had a sizeable Croat population, and also the villages ŠAŠARE, VRNAVOKOLO and VRNEŽ - had Croat majority populations.


The Janjevci as a specific group are one of two Roman Catholic SOUTH SLAVIC REGIONAL SUBGROUPS in Kosovo.














                                The streets of JANJEVO











 The Janjevci developed Croatian national identification during the 20th century as they are believed to be descended from traders that came from the Dubrovnik Republic in the late middle ages.

Ever since 1974, they have been migrating from Kosovo to Croatia, during the process of Yugoslavia's disintegration and the Yugoslav wars.

In 1992 some inhabitants from Letnica emigrated to Croatia and settled in abandoned homes of Serbs in the villages of Voćin  and Varešnica in western Slavonia.

Their Serb inhabitants had previously fled due to the war in Croatia.


Before the Kosovo War began, there were 8,062 Janjevci in Kosovo.

After it, only around 750 remained, the rest fled mostly to Croatia.

In Croatia, many of the Janjevci have settled in the village of KISTANJE  whose native Serb population fled after Operation Storm.

Following the return of the Serbian refugees, the village is divided between two hostile communities.




Crkvu u Kistanjama blagoslovio je nadbiskup Marijan Oblak/Niška STIPANIČEV
















New church of St. Nicholas Traveller in Kistanje (CROATIA )















GORANI  ГОРАНИ                                     




СРБИЈА И ЦРНА ГОРА , СРБИ , ГОРАНИ                                    














The Gorani (the term GORAN roughly translates as "Highlander"), are an ethnic group living in a region called Gora (Slavic for "Mountain"), or Gora/Dragaš municipality in the south of Kosovo, just south of Prizren, in the province of Serbia, called Kosovo (officially Kosovo and Metohija).

                    They also make the majority in the Sar mountain rang, (ŠAR PLANINA), (ШАР ПЛАНИНА), where they live in 4 župas (ЖУПА) GORA, (ГОРА), OPOLJE (ОПОЉЕ), SREDSKA (СРЕДСКА) and SIRINIĆ (СИРИНИЋ)

The Gorani are SLAVIC by origin and Muslim by faith. In addition to speaking their variant of Serbian known as Goranski or Gorani, most also speak Albanian or Macedonian.

Gorani caled own speech also as НАШИНСКИ , НАШЕНСКИ , NAŠINSKI NAŠENSKI

The Gorani speech has been dialectally differentiated into three types:

1. BRODSKI (БРОДСКИ) the speech of BROD



They were Orthodox Serbs who converted to Islam in the late 18th century. Calls for a independence of the province or amalgamation of the province with neighbouring Albania to Greater Albania led to an increasing deterioration of Gorani-Albanian relations.

 The 1980s saw the advent of a Gorani national revival, many officially broke away from the name of 'Muslims by nationality’ (the term used by the Yugoslav government to describe primarily the Slavic Muslims in Bosnia). Most began Slavicizing their surnames (i.e. Ahmeti became Ahmetovic) which many claimed had been Albanized during the Kosovo Communist Albanian rule in the 1970s and 1980s. As the Gorani resided in the southernmost tip of the province many prided themselves as being the "sole guardians of Serbia's southern flank".

The Gora is covered with rough terrain. It is an underdeveloped region, and for almost two centuries its male inhabitants would go off to more distant regions in order to find work. Due to this, a true Gorani diaspora has come to life with many living in parts of inner Serbia (particularly the Eastern parts).

The Gorani numbered some 16,000-strong in the Gora administrative division, according to the 1991 census. This figure grew to over 20,000 by the start of the Kosovo War in 1999. The Gorani became targets of the Kosovo Liberation Army and the Kosovo Protection Force after the retreat of the Yugoslav Army and arrival of Kfor in June 1999. As a result, Gorani leaders estimate that fewer than 10,000 are left in Gora. The UN administration in Kosovo, UNMIK, has redrawn internal boundaries in the province in such a way that a Gorani-majority county no longer exists. The Gora was combined with the neighbouring Albanian-populated region of Opolje (some 20,000 strong) into a new subdivision which now has an Albanian majority.  














Sar mountain

is a mountain on the border of Serbia and Montenegro and the Republic of Macedonia.

The mountain is around 80 kilometers long, some 10-20 kilometers wide. Its tallest peak has 2747 meters.

Vegetation on the mountain includes crops up to around 1000 meters, forests up to 1700 meters, and above that lie high pastures which encompass around 550 square kilometers. This mountain is most known as the origin of the dog breed šarplaninac which was bred on these pastures.



ŠAR PLANINA is also the national park in SERBIA and MONTENEGRO from 1986





 KRANJCI  CARINTHIANS                                                            


  • Carinthians (Kranjci) are an ethnic group considered as part of the Slovene nation. Their name is purely geographical, derived from the Austrian and Slovene province of Carinthia (Koroška) and were involved in many migrations during the rule of the Habsburgs. The Lika region includes many important Carinthian settlements such as Slunj, Tisovac, Kuterevo, Donji Kosinj, Gornji Kosinj, Bakovac, Saborski etc.
  • Carinthians (Slovene Korošci) are residents of Carinthia (in Slovene region Carinthia and also on the other side of the border in Austrian federal state Austrian Carinthia). This term might also refer to inhabitants of the first Slovene state in the 7th century, also called Karantanians (Karantanci).

Carinthia (province)

Carinthia (Slovenian Koroška) is an informal province in the north of Slovenia. It consists of the towns of Dravograd, Slovenj Gradec, Ravne, Črna, Mežica, Prevalje, Mislinja, Muta and Radlje. Carinthia was historically part of Austria-Hungary and populated by a significant number of Slovenians. The Carinthian Plebiscite on October 20, 1920, determined the lines of division between Austria and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. After the Plebiscite, Carinthia fell into two parts separated by in a way quite artificial border. The border was quite impermeable until the recent fall of Berlin wall and somehow coincident downfall of Yugoslavia. Since June 25, 1991 Carinthia has been a part of Slovenia.


  • Carinthia was settled by Slavic tribes around the 6th century. They formed a new people, called Karantanians and Carinthia became the central part of the duchy of Karantania, the first state of Old Slovenians and also the first stable Slavic state ever. Karantania lost autonomy in the early 9th century when it fell under Frankish power. Carinthia was later controlled by Austrian Habsburgs (1335 - 1918). After the Carinthian Plebiscite following the World War I, the region was divided in two parts of which the larger belonged to Austria and the smaller to the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.

Dravograd is a small town and municipality with the same name in Slovenia, located at the crossing of the Sloveinan-Austrian border by the Drava river. The municipality numbers about 9,000 inhabitants and is of area 105 km˛.


  • Dravograd is located at northern part of Slovenia, at the confluence of three rivers: the Drava, the Meža and the Mislinja. The municipality consists of 24 settlements which are contained in 5 local communities: Dravograd, Črneče, Libeliče, Šentjanž pri Dravogradu, and Trbonje.


Location of Dravograd in Slovenia














Caranthanians (Latin Quarantani, Slovenian Karantanci) were the only Alpine Slavs in the early middle ages and the first ethnic name of an old Slovenian people as a separate part of the Slavs (Latin Sclavi qui dicuntur Quarantani, Slavs called Caranthanians).

In the Eastern Alps they established the duchy of Caranthania (independent from 660 to 745, partly independent to 820), the first stable Slavic state(like entity) ever. They are direct ancestors of Slovenians.

Caranthanians were also the first Slavic people who accepted Christianity from the West. At the beginning of 9th century they settled also Pannonia inferior or Lower Pannonia, so the name Caranthanians spread there too (Latin Carantanorum regio, 819).

Name Caranthanians (Quarantani) lasts to 13th century, but in scriptures at the end of 9th c. we also find name Slovens (Sloveni) and for the land Slovenia. Caranthanians were the name later a bit changed to Slovenci (Slovenians or Slovenes). They spoke Old Slovenian (a very archaic form of Slovenian) we find today only in the very first preserved Slavic scripture written in the Latin script caled Freising Manuscripts, Slovenian Bri?inski spomeniki, and lived in Slavic "?upas", parts of early midle ages duchies, and zadrugas, joint families. Mysterious Kosezes (Kasazes, Lat. at first Kosentzez, German Edlinger (noble people), Lombardian Arimanni (members of a special warrior class)) were a subject of much debate. They were probably a private army of the Caranthanian duke.

Duke's stone at the Gosposvetsko polje Duke's stone at the Gosposvetsko poljevojvodski stol

The ancient ritual of installing Karantanian dukes carried out in the Slovenian language on the Duke's Stone (Knežji kamen) at the Gosposvetsko polje (Gosposvetsko Field), today in Carinthia, Austria. This ceremony was conducted until the 15th century and it inspired Thomas Jefferson in writing the United States Declaration of Independence in 1776.


The chief peaks of the South-Eastern Alps, east of the Monte Croce Pass, fall into five small groups, the Julian Alps, Carnic Alps, Karavanke (Karawanken), Kamnik Alps and Savinja Alps

The Julian Alps stretch from north-eastern Italy to Slovenia, where they rise to 2864 metres at Mount Triglav. They are named after Julius Caesar and form part of the South-Eastern Alps.





Mt. Triglav vieved from Debela Pe&#269;




Mt. Triglav vieved from Debela Peč

Mount Triglav (2.864 m) or 9.397 ft. is the highest peak in Slovenia, in the former Yugoslavia and of the South-Eastern Alps. It lies in the Julian Alps. Its name, "Three-headed", describes its shape as seen from the Bohinj valley. This shape can also be seen in the Slovene coat of arms and in the flag of Slovenia.

At the top of the mountain is mounted Aljažev stolp (the Aljaž tower) which is a landmark of Slovenian territory and an important symbol of Slovenia. The opening of Aljažev stolp (the Aljaž tower) was on August 7th 1895. Jakob Aljaž, a priest from Dovje, designed the tower and had it erected as well. The cylindrical metal tower with a flag on the top was made by A. Belec from St. Vid.

The mountain was first ascented on August 26, 1778 by, Luka Korošec  Matevž Kos Štefan Rožič and Lovrenc  Willomitzer on Sigismund Zois’s iniciative.

The Triglav area is also the origin of a old Slovene legend of a chamois buck (steinbock, ibex, capricorn) named Zlatorog (»Goldhorn«), that is nowadays used as a brand mark of a Slovene brewery.

 national park Triglav








The Kamnik alps (Slovene Kamniške alpe) are a mountain group, part of South-Eastern Alps in north Slovenia, a small part extends to neighbouring Austria.

The highest peak is Grintovec (2.558 m). Among others, Jezerska Kočna (2.540 m) and Skuta (2.532 m) are over 2.500 m high while 25 other peaks are over 2.000 m. Total area of the Slovene part is about 900 km˛. About three quarters of the surface are overgrown with forest while many of the higher peaks are bleak and rocky.



Karavanke is a mountain range on the border between Slovenia and Austria.

Running for one hundred and twenty kilometers in total length, the Karavanke chain is the longest range in Europe. The highest peak is Hochstuhl (German)/Stol (Slovenian) (2236m). Some others are the Korošica Ridge, Golica, Peca, and Olševa.

Together with Kamnik Alps (also "Savinjske Alpe" in Slovene) Karavanke chain frorms a natural border between north-western and south-eastern Europe. There are therefore a number of mountain passes on important trade routs. One of them is Ljubelj (1370m), which is over three hundred years old and is the oldest mountain pass in Europe.

Karavanke with numerous mountain huts offer a good opportunity for mountaineering. Many of their peaks afford a good view over the Klagenfurt (Celovec in Slovenian) basin as well as over steeper valleys on the Slovenian side. The Austrian side is more rocky and steep while slovenian side is less steep and overgrown with forest, grass or pine bushes.












Molise Serbs

Molise Serbs are Serbian subgroup, found in the Molise region of Italy. They form majority in areas of Molise, 3 villages adjacent to Molise, 10 villages and towns in Sicily.

There are around 28,000 members of this ethnic group, and 2000 live in three villages in regions adjacent to Molise. There are 2000 living in Rome. 8000 in areas of Sicily. There are also 3845 in other regions of Italy.

There are around 43 845 Molise Serbs living in Italy.

Of all the members most speak Italian, along with Molise Serbian, and some know Serbian. Molise Serbian has some connections to Serbian, and is considered to be a diaspora language due to the many differences.




















The Slavic Homeland Debates

Two major historical theories address the issue of the original homeland of Slavs:

  1. the autochthonic theory assumes that Slavs had lived north of the Carpathian Mountains since 1000 BC.
  2. the allochthonic theory assumes that the Slavs came there in the 5th or 6th century AD.

Germans and different Slavic nations employed both theories as tools of political propaganda, resulting in general confusion. Some scientists (such as Kazimierz Godlowski or Zdenek Vana) consider both theories absurd: they think that Slavs as such appeared and differentiated themselves from other tribes at some time after 1AD. One theory suggests that two waves of Slavs existed: Proto-Slavs (called Venedes or Wenets) and Slavs proper; and that these two groups mixed to become today's Slavs. That theory at least tries to deal with the very complicated questions arising from archeological findings in the area of the Slavic lands. Nobody knows for sure where the Slavs lived before their big expansion. Slavs first appeared in history living in the Pripyat Marshes area (Polesie), but a considerable number of Slavic words have Indo-Aryan links of the form suggesting genesis from a common ancestor, rather than borrowing.

The opposite recent theory postulates an autochthonous Slavic origin from pre-glacial times. The Germanic and Romanian (Vlachian) populations, by this theory, would have arisen from the effect of language changes after conquest. This theory is based on genetic research and a theory of multi-regional human evolution instead of the "out of Africa" concept. The Slavic homeland, in this theory, would have included areas described by Tacitus as Germania. Tacitus wrote that Germania, as applied to all the Germanic peoples, was a relatively recent (1st century) coinage.

Still more confusion comes from the fact that some Slavic peoples originated as a result of complete assimilation of ancient non-Slavic peoples. For example, the roots of modern Bulgarians can be traced to Central-Asian Bulgars.

An extreme of this spectrum of opinions, a total myth, is exposed in Connection between Poles and Vandals.


Naming and Etymologies

Slavs appeared in early histories as Venedes or Wends, but their connection to the Veneds mentioned by Tacitus, Ptolemy and Pliny, remains uncertain, and the similarity of the two names may have come about accidentally.

Controversy surrounds the connection between the Lugii and the Slavs. Some recent authors connect the Lugii with Slavs, some with Germanic tribes and still others claim that they formed a compound tribe, or a confederation of tribes of different ethnicity. The Lugii or Lygii had earlier Celtic elements and were actually recorded as a part of the Vandals in Magna Germania, which included the territory of present-day Silesia (named for the Silingi-Vandals). The city of Legnica (Liegnitz) in Silesia may possibly commemorate the name of Lug, Ligo.

Some later writers recorded the names of Slavic peoples as Sclavens, Sclovene, and Ants. Jordanes mentions that the Venets sub-divided into three groups: the Venets, the Ants and the Sklavens. Traditionally the name "Venets" has become associated with the Western Slavs, "Sklavens" with the Southern Slavs, and the "Ants" (or "Antes") with the Eastern Slavs.

Even the origin of the word "Slav" remains controversial. In Slavic languages that word is "Slowianie", "Slovene", or something similar, with obvious similarities to word slowo or slovo meaning "word". Slowianie would mean "people who can speak", as opposed to the Slavic word for Germans, "Niemcy", that is, "dumb", "people who cannot speak" (compare the Greek coinage of the term "barbarian"). Another obvious similarity links "Slavs" to the word slawa or slava, that is "glory" or "praise" (with a root in common with slowo - someone glorious has a word, a tale, spreading about him). Some linguists believe, however, that these obvious connections mislead, despite the early translation of the Greek word orthodoxos ("Correct/right", "glorifying/praising") having its equivalent in pravoslavni with pravo meaning "right" or "correct" and slavni meaning "those who praise" or "those who glorify" [God].

The English word "slave" has its root in the Slavic ethnonym, because in the early middle ages Slavs were often used as slaves. See this external etymology


Early Migrations

Presumably the Slavs, like putative Indo-Europeans, originated from a region in Asia, from which they migrated in the 3rd or 2nd millennium BC to populate parts of eastern Europe.

There are many thoeries, where the nest of Slavs were located. It is listed area of todays Poland, marshes of Polesie, Volhynia, areas around upper Dniepr river or even central asia. Historians proved that in the middle of the 1st millennium BC, Celtic tribes settled along the upper Oder river (Odra), and Germanic tribes settled on the lower Vistula and lower Oder river, usually without displacing the Slavs there. The lands of the Elbe, Oder and Vistula Rivers all received the name Magna Germania 1900 years ago and later. However, there is no hint, which of the listed tribes were Slavic and where they lived.

Slavs emerged from being unnoticed when the movement westward of the Germans and Celts in the 5th and 6th centuries A.D. - necessitated by the onslaught of people from the Siberia and Eastern Europe: Huns, Avars, Bulgars and Magyars- started the great migration of the Slavs, who proceeded in the Germans' wake westward into the country between the Odra and the Elbe-Saale line, southward into Bohemia, Moravia, much of present day Austria, the Pannonian plain and the Balkans, and northward along the upper Dnieper river.


Slavs in the Historical Period

When their migratory movements ended there appeared among the Slavs the first rudiments of state organizations, each headed by a prince with a treasury and defense force, and the beginning of class differentiation, with nobles who pledged allegiance to the Frankish and Holy Roman Emperors. Numerous Slavic place names of the Peloponesus date to the second century C.E.

Karantania in today's Austria and Slovenia formed the first known Slavic state, very old are also the Principality of Nitra and the Moravian principality (see under Great Moravia). In this period there existed central Slavic groups and states such as the Balaton Principality or the Severans, but the eventual expansion of the Magyars and the Romanians as well as the Germanisation of Austria separated the northern and southern Slavs. An explanation of the distinction between the western and eastern Slavs remains to be written.

In the historic period scarcely any unity developed among the various Slavic peoples, although faint traces of co-operation sometimes appeared.

Because of vastness and diversity of the territory occupied by Slavic peoples, there were several centers of Slavic consolidation, which was never complete for many reasons. In the 19th century, Pan-Slavism developed as a movement among intellectuals, scholars, and poets, but it rarely influenced practical politics. The common Slavic experience of Soviet communism after World War II within the Eastern bloc (Warsaw Pact) didn't provide anything more than a high-level political and economic alliance, again hegemonic.

Adolf Hitler and Nazi Germany claimed the racial superiority of the Germanic people, particularly over the Semitic and Slavic peoples. One major goal of the Nazi's ethnic programs was the enslavement of the Slavic peoples, and the reduction their numbers by killing the majority of the population. Hitler, as evidenced in Mein Kampf, had the aim that the Slavs serve the Third Reich as a permanent slave class.


Religion and alphabet

In religion, the Slavs traditionally divided into two main groups:

  1. those associated with the Eastern Orthodox Church -- most Russians, most Ukrainians, most Belarusians, some Carpatho-Ruthenians (Rusyns), most Serbs, most Bulgarians and most Macedonians
  2. those associated with the Roman Catholic Church (both Roman Catholic believers and Uniate adherents) -- Poles, some Sorbs, some Czechs, most Slovaks, Croats, Slovenians, some Ukrainians, a few Serbs, a few Macedonians and some Belarusians

The Orthodox/Catholic religious divisions become further exacerbated by the use of the Cyrillic alphabet by the Orthodox and Uniates (Greek Catholics) and of the Roman alphabet by Catholics.

However, some Sorbs profess Protestantism, as do most of the Czechs, certain Slovaks and a few Slovenians. Bosniaks, Pomaks and Torbesh are Muslims. These minority religious groups use the Latin alphabet











Na hrvatskom  - In Croatian

Slaveni su najbrojnija etnička i lingvistička skupina naroda u Europi. Govore slavenske jezike i uglavnom nastanjuju istok kontinenta, ali rasprostranjeni su i u Aziji sve do Tihog oceana.

Etno-kulturna podjela

Uobičajilo se dijeliti Slavene na ove podskupine:

  • Istočni Slaveni:
    • Rusi
      • Starovjerci (Lipovski Rusi)
    • Ukrajinci
      • Bukovci
      • Rusini (Ruteni)
        • Lemki
        • Bojki
        • Huculi
    • Bjelorusi
    • Polješčuci (između Ukrajinaca i Bjelorusa)
  • Zapadni Slaveni:
    • Poljaci
      • Kašubi i Slovinci
      • Mazuri
      • Šlezi
      • Kočevjaci
      • Borovjaci
      • Varmijaci
    • Česi
      • Moravljani
    • Slovaci
    • Lužički Srbi (Sorbi)
  • Južni Slaveni:
    • Bugari
      • Pomaci
    • Bošnjaci
    • Hrvati
      • Bokelji
      • Bunjevci
      • Gradišćanski Hrvati
      • Janjevci
      • Moliški Hrvati
    • Makedonci
      • Torbeši
    • Srbi
      • Crnogorci
      • Gorani
    • Slovenci
      • Kranjci


Pitanje porijekla Slavena

U pitanju slavenske pradomovine postoje dvije velike teorije:

  1. autohtona teorija tvrdi da su Slaveni živjeli sjeverno od Karpata od 1000. godine prije Krista.
  2. alohtona teorija tvrdi da su Slaveni došli na to područje u 5. ili 6. stoljeću poslije Krista.

Njemačka i razne slavenske nacije koristile su obje teorije za političku propagandu, pa je nastala opća zbrka. Neki znanstvenici (npr. Kazimierz Godlowski i Zdenek Vana) smatraju da su obje teorije apsurdne i tvrde da su se Slaveni pojavili kao posebno pleme negdje u vrijeme Krista. Jedna teorija tvrdi da su postojala dva vala Slavena, Praslaveni (Veneti) i Slaveni, koji su se pomiješali i stvorili današnje Slavene. Ta teorija barem pokuašva riješiti vrlo složena pitanja koja proizlaze iz arheoloških nalaza u slavenskim područjima. Ukratko, nije sigurno gdje su Slaveni živjeli prije seobe na zapad. Prvi povijesni spomen Slavena smješta ih u područje močvara rijeke Pripyat (Poleška), ali znatan broj slavenskih riječi ima indoarijske oblike koji ukazuju na zajednički prajezik.

Nedavno se javila suprotna teorija, koja tvrdi da su Slaveni autohtoni još od vremena prije ledenog doba. Prema toj teoriji, Germani i Romani (Vlasi) nastali su zbog jezičnih promjena nakon osvajanja. Ta se teorija zasniva na genetici i teoriji razvitka ljudi u više centara, za razliku od ideje "svi iz Afrike", te tvrdi da je slavenska pradomovina uključivala područja koja Tacit navodi kao Germaniju. Uostalom, Tacit je pisao da je pojam "Germanija" u smislu domovine Germana nastao relativno nedavno (u 1. stoljeću).

Dodatnu zbrku unosi činjenica da su neki slavenski narodi nastali zbog potpune asimilacije drevnih neslavenskih naroda. Tako se korijeni današnjih Bugara mogu naći u Srednjoj Aziji. Tu spadaju i mitovi o iranskom porijeklu Hrvata i vandalskom porijeklu Poljaka.


Porijeklo imena

Slaveni se u prvim povijesnim zapisima javljaju kao Veneti ili Vendi, ali njihova veza s Vendima koje spominju Tacit, Ptolemej i Plinije ostaje nejasna, pa je sličnost između ta dva imena možda slučajna.

Raspravlja se i o vezi između Lužika i Slavena. Neki istraživači povezuju Lužike sa Slavenima, drugi s Germanima, a treći tvrde da su Lužici bili miješano pleme ili savez plemena različitih naroda. Lužici su imali keltske elemente, a spominju se i kao dio Vandala u Magna Germania, koja je pokrivala današnju Šlesku (nazvanu po Silingi-Vandalima). Grad Legnica (Liegnitz) u Šleskoj možda vuče korijen iz imena Lužika.

Kasniji pisci bilježili su Slavene kao Sklaveni, Skloveni i Anti. Jordanes navodi da se Veneti dijele na tri skupine: Venete, Ante i Sklavene. Tradicionalno se ime "Veneti" počelo vezati uz Zapadne Slavene, "Sklaveni" uz Južne Slavene, a "Anti" uz Istočne Slavene.

Čak i porijeklo riječi "Slaven" nije sigurno. Očito postoji sličnost s riječju "slovo", pa možda "Slaveni" znači "oni koji znaju govoriti", za razliku od "Nijemci", tj. njemaci, "oni koji ne znaju govoriti" (na sličan način su Grci skovali riječ "barbari"). Druga očita veza je riječ "slava", koja ima zajednički korijen sa "slovo" - kad je netko slavan, o njemu se širi glas.

Engleska riječ "slave" (rob) vuče korijen iz "Slaven", jer su u ranom srednjem vijeku Slaveni često bili robovi.

Slaveni u seobi naroda

Kao prvo, vidi gornje poglavlje o porijeklu Slavena.

Slaveni se javljaju u povijesti kad se za Germanima i Keltima kreću na zapad u 5. i 6. stoljeću, vjerojatno pod pritiskom naroda iz Sibira i Istočne Europe (Huni, Avari, Bugari i Mađari). Tada su Slaveni naselili područje između Odre i Labe na sjeveru, zatim Češku, Moravsku, velik dio današnje Austrije, Panoniju i Balkan, te kod gornjeg toka rijeke Dnjepar.


Slaveni nakon seobe

Kad su se smjestili, Slaveni su uspostavili prve oblike država, kojima su upravljali knezovi s riznicom i vojskom, kao i prve klasne podjele, s plemićima koji su pristajali uz Franke i Sveto Rimsko Carstvo.

Karantanija, koja je pokrivala današnju Austriju i Sloveniju, bila je prva slavenska država, a stare države su i Samovo kraljevstvo, Nitra i Moravska. U tom razdoblju su postojale i države središnjih Slavena, kao što je Balatonska kneževina i Severani, ali širenje Mađara i Rumunja, kao i germanizacija Austrije razdvojili su sjeverne od južnih Slavena. U starijoj povijesti nije bilo nikakvog jedinstva slavenskih naroda, iako je povremeno bilo suradnje.

S obzirom da su Slaveni pokrivali golemo i raznoliko područje, pojavilo se nekoliko središta koja su radila na jedinstvu Slavena. U 19. stoljeću se pojavio pokret panslavenstva među intelektualcima, znanstvenicima i književnicima, ali rijetko je utjecao na praktičnu politiku, osim na Balkanu. Zagreb je bio vrlo jak centar te ideologije, pa se u njemu razvila klica onoga što će kasnije postati Jugoslavija. Nakon raspada diktatura u Jugoslaviji i SSSR-u krajem 1980-ih, mogućnost udruživanja Slavena manja je nego ikad prije.

U prvoj polovici 20. stoljeća, nacisti su forsirali ideju rasa i tvrdili da je germanska rasa nadređena slavenskoj, koja je trebala služiti kao roblje u Trećem Reichu. Međutim, te su se ideje ugasile s porazom Njemačke u 2. svj. ratu.


Vjera i pismo

Vjerski se Slaveni tradicionalno dijele na dvije glavne skupine:

  1. pravoslavci -- Rusi, Ukrajinci, Bjelorusi, Srbi, Bugari, Makedonci i Rusini.
  2. katolici -- Poljaci, Slovaci, Hrvati, Slovenci i Česi.

Postoje i Slaveni muslimani (Bošnjaci, Pomaci i Torbeši).
Naravno, u stvarnosti postoje katoličke, pravoslavne, protestantske i muslimanske manjine u svim tim zemljama. Razlika između katolika i pravoslavaca još je izraženija zbog dva pisma, latinice i ćirilice.





   По-русски - In russiaan

Славянские языки

Материал из Википедии — свободной энциклопедии

Славя́нские языки́ — группа родственных языков индоевропейской семьи; распространены на территории Европы и Азии. Общее число говорящих около 290 млн. человек.

Из других индоевропейских языков к славянским ближе всего балтийские языки.

Славянские языки подразделяют на восточнославянские, западнославянские и южнославянские.

Для записи современных славянских языков используются кириллица и латиница. Раньше использовались также глаголица и арабское письмо.


Список славянских языков:

  • Восточнославянские языки
    • Русский
    • Украинский
    • Белорусский
    • Древнерусский
  • Западнославянские языки
    • Польский
    • Верхнелужицкий
    • Нижнелужицкий
    • Полабский (вымерший)
    • Чешский
    • Словацкий
  • Южнославянские языки
    • Болгарский
    • Македонский
    • Сербохорватский
      • Сербский
      • Хорватский
      • Боснийский
      • Черногорский
    • Словенский
    • Старославянский
    • Церковнославянский




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