POLES - BOROWIACY
A Polish ethnic group, the Borowiacy traditionally inhabit the area of
the Tuchola forests near Tuchola in
The Kujavian-Pomeranian Voivodship (in
Polish województwo kujawsko-pomorskie)
is an administrative region or voivodship in central-northern
Warmiak - a Polish ethnic group from Warmia, mostly Roman Catholics.
Between the XIV and XVII centuries, settlers from northern Mazovia moved to former teritories of Old Prussians following their conquest by Teutonic Order.
Since the bishopry of Warmia became part of
Warmia i Mazury road map
i Mazury (officially, the Warmińsko-Mazurskie Voivodship) is
an administrative region or voivodship of north-eastern
A Moravian is a
Protestant belonging to a religious movement that originated in
The establishment of the Moravian church as a Christian church occurred
as a reaction against certain alleged errors within the Roman Catholic church.
This movement was started by a priest named Jan Hus. Bohemia and Moravia had
been Orthodox, and had been forced to convert to Catholicism, even though
Czech homelands of Bohemia and Moravia
Pomaks are those whose mother tongue is Pomakika (name in Greek – Πομάκοι/ Pomakci (name in their language); most linguists call that language Pomak and, sometimes, Bulgarian. The Pomak language belongs to the linguistic family of the Southern Slavic languages, and, within them, to the linguistic group of Bulgaro-Macedonian. There is no information on Pomak dialects. Although there is no written tradition, the appropriate alphabet to write the language is the Cyrillic. It is generally believed that Pomak is one of the various Bulgaro-Macedonian dialects which existed in the Southern Balkans before the emergence of modern nation-states and their corresponding literary languages.
Pomaks live in the three departments of
Pomaks, who live
in the provinces of Xanthi and Rhodope in Greece, are probably the descendants
of Agrianes, a Thracian tribe of
"Pomaks" (ethnic Bulgarian Muslims) - 3%
Pomaks. Ethnic Bulgarian Muslims or "Pomaks" are a distinct group of Slavic descent, whose ancestors converted from Orthodox Christianity to Islam. Most are Muslim, although a number have become atheists or converted back to Christianity.
'Pomaks' is the name of pretty large group of people who live
mainly in Rhodopi mountains (southern
, close to the Bulgaria
). They have muslim names and speak very Greece
ancient bulgarian language (bulgarian belongs to the group of
slavic languages). Their ancestors were slavic christian people
who accepted muslim religion. This fact took place in 16th and
17th centuries. There were several ways to become muslim that
Bulgarialike all Balkan peninsula, was part of the Ottoman empire
Indo-European / Slavic / Southern / Eastern branch
The Pomaks live in Western Thrace (
Latest estimates from the
Bosniaks (natively: Bošnjaci),
previously known as Ethnical Muslims of
Yugoslavia, are SLAVS who were converted to Islam during the
Ottoman period (15-19 centhury) Bosniaks are named after Bosnia, the
westernmost Balkan region held by the Turks. Most Muslim inhabitants ofBosnia
There are conflicting claims on how the population in
Many Christian children became Muslims by getting
forcibly enrolled as Janičari, into the Ottoman army. Janissaries, however, had
no right to marry until 1566, and before and after that were used throughout
Boka Kotorska (
The traditional inhabitants of Boka are Serbs with some Croats (NB not Montenegrins, which are from Cetinje etc), and they are often collectively referred to as the Bokelji.
The three counties making up Boka Kotorska have a total population of 71,443 of which 76% are Serb Orthodox and 11% are Catholics:
Naša mila Boko, nevjesto Jadrana,
Pokrivena nebom k'o od plave svile,
Ljepša si od tvoje primorkinje vile
I svjetlija od njenog đerdana.
Nikada se tebe nagledao ne bi',
No da mi je jedno: da postanem valom
Sinjega ti mora, pa pred tvojim žalom
Da vječito šumim i da pjevam tebi.
I da s tobom gledam na tvoj Lovćen plavi,
Pa jednoga dana kad se Gospod javi,
Kad orlovi naši visoko zabrode
I sa tvojih ruka panu gvožđa tvrda,
Da pobjednu himnu slušam s tvojih brda
I da s tobom slavim dan zlatne slobode!
southernmost fjord in
And I wonder how sun can go down
Vwen this beauty elsewhere cannot be found
CROATS - BUNJEVCI
BUNJEVCI are a Croatian sub-group, which one part colonized Lika and the Croatian Littoral, while the other part moved for the most part into Bačka. As a whole group it is only this second branch which is considered, which is why the name Bunjevci is understood to be the Bačka Bunjevci.
The name Bunjevac is interpreted by writers differently.
Fr. Marijan Lanošović derives it from the river Buna near Mostar. These ideas are later represended by: Vuk St. Karadžić, Rudolf Horvat, Ivan Ivanić, Ivan Antonović, Istvan Ivanyi, and Mijo Mandić. Even the Bunjevci's folk phrases say "Our grandfathers come afar - from the place of the Buna river".
Fr. Martin Nedić states that the Bunjevci got their name from being followers of Pope Boniface's (Bunjo), similar to the early Christians being called Efazenics for being followers of Mark od Efeza.
Radivoj Simonović holds that the Bunjevci were first Vlachs who, to
escape the Ottomans moved into
Bogoslav Kosović derives the Bunjevac's name from the word "bunja" which was a specific type of house in which they lived.
Ivan Kukuljević believes that the name Bunjevac has a scornful name like Vlach, Šokac, Majdak, Bodul, etc.
After the battle of Mohacs , (Mohač ), (1526) the majority of the
Hungarian population out of fear from the Turks moved out of Bačka and
into northen Hungary, which the fertile and deserted plain enticed the new
settlers from Slavonia, Bosnia, and Dalmatia. By 1565, among these settlers,
one could already find the Bunjevac's last names in
From that point on, there are more references to the Bunjevci in
Bačka, who in many waves moved from northern Dalmatia, Lika, and the
Croatian littoral, and some from
a tipical SALAŠ around
The main settling of Bunjevci into western Bačka began in 1686
under the leadership of the Franciscans. So that the
Historic documents also refer to Bunjevci as Dalmatians,
Catholic Serbs (Catholic Rascians) as well as Bosnians. In October 1918, they
held a national convention in
Nationally, the Magyar censa from 1880 onward to 1910
numbered the Bunjevci distinctly, separate from the Serbs even though they were
referred to as Catholic Serbs. The creation of the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats
and Slovenes (renamed
The 1990's saw a comeback of the Bunjevac national
movement with their official recognition as a minority group in
Som of Famous BUNJEVCI
ANTUN GUSTAV MATOŠ literator
ANTE STARČEVIĆ politician
JOSIP PANČIĆ biologist
ALBE VIDAKOVIĆ composer
ZVONKO BOGDAN singer MIROLJUB ANTE EVETOVIĆ literator
Hej, salaši (Zvonko Bogdan)
1. Hej, salaši na severu Bačke,
u vama su pisme bunjevačke.
A tambura tako lipo svira, |
ko da note par slavuja bira. |
R. Ni svatova nigdi taki' nema,
ko kad bačo kćer na udaj' sprema.
Νa snaši se bili šlajer vije,
ko kad zimi snig salaš pokrije.
2. Hej, Bunjevci na severu Bačke!
Sačuvajte pisme bunjevačke!
Pivajte ih još puno godina,
vaša j' grana mala, al' je fina.
R. I lumpujte, al' lipo polako.
Nek se divi i nek vidi svako.
Pa nek vranci pokidaju štrange,
kad se krenu momci na vašange
Oun of the greatest BUNJEVAC
A living legend
Molise Croats are Croatian subgroup, found in the
There forefathers came in the 15th and the 16th centuries in several waves fleeing from Turkish suppression.
There are about 1.700 of
Of all the members most speak
Italian, along with
view of JANJEVO (with the
JANJEVCI are inhabitants of the SERBIA and MONTENEGRO, province of KOSOVO AND METOHIJA , village of JANJEVO municipality of LIPLJAN, and surrounding villages, located near PRIŠTINA, as well as villages centered around LETNICA near VITINA.
As well as Janjevo, Lipljan town also had a sizeable Croat population, and also the villages ŠAŠARE, VRNAVOKOLO and VRNEŽ - had Croat majority populations.
The Janjevci as a specific group are one of two Roman Catholic SOUTH SLAVIC REGIONAL SUBGROUPS in Kosovo.
The streets of JANJEVO
The Janjevci developed Croatian national
identification during the 20th century as they are believed to be descended
from traders that came from the
Ever since 1974, they have been migrating
from Kosovo to
In 1992 some
inhabitants from Letnica emigrated to
inhabitants had previously fled due to the war in
Before the Kosovo War began, there were 8,062 Janjevci in Kosovo.
After it, only around 750 remained,
the rest fled mostly to
Following the return of the Serbian refugees, the village is divided between two hostile communities.
build up by ‘KOSOVO CROATS’ JANJEVCI
СРБИЈА И ЦРНА ГОРА , СРБИ , ГОРАНИ
SERBIA-MONTENEGRO SERBS, GORANI
The Gorani (the term GORAN roughly translates as "Highlander"), are an ethnic group living in a region called Gora (Slavic for "Mountain"), or Gora/Dragaš municipality in the south of Kosovo, just south of Prizren, in the province of Serbia, called Kosovo (officially Kosovo and Metohija).
They also make the majority in the Sar mountain rang, (ŠAR PLANINA), (ШАР ПЛАНИНА), where they live in 4 župas (ЖУПА) GORA, (ГОРА), OPOLJE (ОПОЉЕ), SREDSKA (СРЕДСКА) and SIRINIĆ (СИРИНИЋ)
The Gorani are SLAVIC by origin and Muslim by faith. In addition to speaking their variant of Serbian known as Goranski or Gorani, most also speak Albanian or Macedonian.
Gorani caled own speech also as НАШИНСКИ , НАШЕНСКИ , NAŠINSKI NAŠENSKI
The Gorani speech has been dialectally differentiated into three types:
1. BRODSKI (БРОДСКИ) the speech of BROD
2. RESTELIČKI (РЕСТЕЛИЧКИ ) the speech of RESTELICA
3. DOLOIŠTANSKI (ДОЛОИШТАНСКИ ) the speech of DOLOIŠTE
They were Orthodox
Serbs who converted to Islam in the late 18th century. Calls for a
independence of the province or amalgamation of the province with neighbouring
The 1980s saw the advent of a Gorani national
revival, many officially broke away from the name of 'Muslims by nationality’
(the term used by the Yugoslav government to describe primarily the Slavic
The Gora is covered with
rough terrain. It is an underdeveloped region, and for almost two centuries its
male inhabitants would go off to more distant regions in order to find work.
Due to this, a true Gorani diaspora has come to life with many living in parts
The Gorani numbered some 16,000-strong in the Gora administrative division, according to the 1991 census. This figure grew to over 20,000 by the start of the Kosovo War in 1999. The Gorani became targets of the Kosovo Liberation Army and the Kosovo Protection Force after the retreat of the Yugoslav Army and arrival of Kfor in June 1999. As a result, Gorani leaders estimate that fewer than 10,000 are left in Gora. The UN administration in Kosovo, UNMIK, has redrawn internal boundaries in the province in such a way that a Gorani-majority county no longer exists. The Gora was combined with the neighbouring Albanian-populated region of Opolje (some 20,000 strong) into a new subdivision which now has an Albanian majority.
ar Planina (ШАР ПЛАНИНА), ŠAR PLANINA
is a mountain on the border of
The mountain is around 80 kilometers long, some 10-20 kilometers wide. Its tallest peak has 2747 meters.
Vegetation on the mountain includes crops up to around 1000 meters, forests up to 1700 meters, and above that lie high pastures which encompass around 550 square kilometers. This mountain is most known as the origin of the dog breed šarplaninac which was bred on these pastures.
PLANINA is also the national park in
Carinthia (Slovenian Koroška) is
an informal province in the north of
Dravograd is a small town and municipality with the same name in Slovenia, located
at the crossing of the Sloveinan-Austrian border by the
Caranthanians (Latin Quarantani, Slovenian Karantanci) were the only Alpine Slavs in the early middle ages and the first ethnic name of an old Slovenian people as a separate part of the Slavs (Latin Sclavi qui dicuntur Quarantani, Slavs called Caranthanians).
Caranthanians were also the first Slavic people who accepted Christianity from the West. At the beginning of 9th century they settled also Pannonia inferior or Lower Pannonia, so the name Caranthanians spread there too (Latin Carantanorum regio, 819).
Name Caranthanians (Quarantani)
lasts to 13th century, but in scriptures at the end of 9th c. we also find name
Slovens (Sloveni) and for the
The ancient ritual of installing
Karantanian dukes carried out in the Slovenian language on the Duke's Stone (Knežji kamen) at the Gosposvetsko polje (Gosposvetsko Field), today in
The Julian Alps
stretch from north-eastern
At the top of the mountain is mounted Aljažev stolp (the Aljaž tower) which is a landmark of Slovenian territory
and an important symbol of
The mountain was first ascented on August 26, 1778 by, Luka Korošec Matevž
The Triglav area is also the origin of a old Slovene legend of a chamois buck (steinbock, ibex, capricorn) named Zlatorog (»Goldhorn«), that is nowadays used as a brand mark of a Slovene brewery.
national park Triglav
The Kamnik alps
(Slovene Kamniške alpe) are a mountain group, part of South-Eastern Alps in
The highest peak is Grintovec (2.558 m). Among others, Jezerska Kočna (2.540 m) and Skuta (2.532 m) are over 2.500 m high while 25 other peaks are over 2.000 m. Total area of the Slovene part is about 900 km˛. About three quarters of the surface are overgrown with forest while many of the higher peaks are bleak and rocky.
Karavanke is a mountain range on the
Running for one hundred and twenty kilometers in total length, the
Karavanke chain is the longest range in
Together with Kamnik Alps (also "Savinjske Alpe" in Slovene)
Karavanke chain frorms a natural border between north-western and south-eastern
Karavanke with numerous mountain huts offer a good opportunity for
mountaineering. Many of their peaks afford a good view over the
Molise Serbs are Serbian subgroup, found in the
There are around 28,000 members of this ethnic group,
and 2000 live in three villages in regions adjacent to
There are around 43 845
Of all the members most speak Italian, along with
Two major historical theories address the issue of the original homeland of Slavs:
Germans and different Slavic nations employed both theories as tools of political propaganda, resulting in general confusion. Some scientists (such as Kazimierz Godlowski or Zdenek Vana) consider both theories absurd: they think that Slavs as such appeared and differentiated themselves from other tribes at some time after 1AD. One theory suggests that two waves of Slavs existed: Proto-Slavs (called Venedes or Wenets) and Slavs proper; and that these two groups mixed to become today's Slavs. That theory at least tries to deal with the very complicated questions arising from archeological findings in the area of the Slavic lands. Nobody knows for sure where the Slavs lived before their big expansion. Slavs first appeared in history living in the Pripyat Marshes area (Polesie), but a considerable number of Slavic words have Indo-Aryan links of the form suggesting genesis from a common ancestor, rather than borrowing.
The opposite recent
theory postulates an autochthonous Slavic origin from pre-glacial times. The
Germanic and Romanian (Vlachian) populations, by this theory, would have arisen
from the effect of language changes after conquest. This theory is based on
genetic research and a theory of multi-regional human evolution instead of the
Still more confusion comes from the fact that some Slavic peoples originated as a result of complete assimilation of ancient non-Slavic peoples. For example, the roots of modern Bulgarians can be traced to Central-Asian Bulgars.
An extreme of this spectrum of opinions, a total myth, is exposed in Connection between Poles and Vandals.
Slavs appeared in early histories as Venedes or Wends, but their connection to the Veneds mentioned by Tacitus, Ptolemy and Pliny, remains uncertain, and the similarity of the two names may have come about accidentally.
the connection between the Lugii and the Slavs. Some recent authors connect the
Lugii with Slavs, some with Germanic tribes and still others claim that they
formed a compound tribe, or a confederation of tribes of different ethnicity.
The Lugii or Lygii had earlier Celtic elements and were actually recorded as a
part of the Vandals in Magna Germania,
which included the territory of present-day
Some later writers
recorded the names of Slavic peoples as Sclavens,
Sclovene, and Ants. Jordanes mentions that the Venets
sub-divided into three groups: the Venets, the Ants and the Sklavens.
Traditionally the name "Venets" has become associated with the
Western Slavs, "Sklavens" with the Southern Slavs, and the
"Ants" (or "Antes") with the
Even the origin of the word "Slav" remains controversial. In Slavic languages that word is "Slowianie", "Slovene", or something similar, with obvious similarities to word slowo or slovo meaning "word". Slowianie would mean "people who can speak", as opposed to the Slavic word for Germans, "Niemcy", that is, "dumb", "people who cannot speak" (compare the Greek coinage of the term "barbarian"). Another obvious similarity links "Slavs" to the word slawa or slava, that is "glory" or "praise" (with a root in common with slowo - someone glorious has a word, a tale, spreading about him). Some linguists believe, however, that these obvious connections mislead, despite the early translation of the Greek word orthodoxos ("Correct/right", "glorifying/praising") having its equivalent in pravoslavni with pravo meaning "right" or "correct" and slavni meaning "those who praise" or "those who glorify" [God].
The English word "slave" has its root in the Slavic ethnonym, because in the early middle ages Slavs were often used as slaves. See this external etymology
Presumably the Slavs,
like putative Indo-Europeans, originated from a region in
There are many thoeries,
where the nest of Slavs were located. It is listed area of todays
Slavs emerged from being unnoticed when the movement westward of the Germans and Celts in the 5th and 6th centuries A.D. - necessitated by the onslaught of people from the Siberia and Eastern Europe: Huns, Avars, Bulgars and Magyars- started the great migration of the Slavs, who proceeded in the Germans' wake westward into the country between the Odra and the Elbe-Saale line, southward into Bohemia, Moravia, much of present day Austria, the Pannonian plain and the Balkans, and northward along the upper Dnieper river.
When their migratory movements ended there appeared among the Slavs the first rudiments of state organizations, each headed by a prince with a treasury and defense force, and the beginning of class differentiation, with nobles who pledged allegiance to the Frankish and Holy Roman Emperors. Numerous Slavic place names of the Peloponesus date to the second century C.E.
Karantania in today's
Austria and Slovenia formed the first known Slavic state, very old are also the
In the historic period scarcely any unity developed among the various Slavic peoples, although faint traces of co-operation sometimes appeared.
Because of vastness and
diversity of the territory occupied by Slavic peoples, there were several
centers of Slavic consolidation, which was never complete for many reasons. In
the 19th century, Pan-Slavism developed as a movement among intellectuals,
scholars, and poets, but it rarely influenced practical politics. The common
Slavic experience of Soviet communism after World War II within the Eastern
Adolf Hitler and Nazi Germany claimed the racial superiority of the Germanic people, particularly over the Semitic and Slavic peoples. One major goal of the Nazi's ethnic programs was the enslavement of the Slavic peoples, and the reduction their numbers by killing the majority of the population. Hitler, as evidenced in Mein Kampf, had the aim that the Slavs serve the Third Reich as a permanent slave class.
In religion, the Slavs traditionally divided into two main groups:
The Orthodox/Catholic religious divisions become further exacerbated by the use of the Cyrillic alphabet by the Orthodox and Uniates (Greek Catholics) and of the Roman alphabet by Catholics.
However, some Sorbs profess Protestantism, as do most of the Czechs, certain Slovaks and a few Slovenians. Bosniaks, Pomaks and Torbesh are Muslims. These minority religious groups use the Latin alphabet
Na hrvatskom - In Croatian
Slaveni su najbrojnija etnička i lingvistička skupina naroda u Europi. Govore slavenske jezike i uglavnom nastanjuju istok kontinenta, ali rasprostranjeni su i u Aziji sve do Tihog oceana.
Uobičajilo se dijeliti Slavene na ove podskupine:
U pitanju slavenske pradomovine postoje dvije velike teorije:
Njemačka i razne slavenske nacije koristile su obje teorije za političku propagandu, pa je nastala opća zbrka. Neki znanstvenici (npr. Kazimierz Godlowski i Zdenek Vana) smatraju da su obje teorije apsurdne i tvrde da su se Slaveni pojavili kao posebno pleme negdje u vrijeme Krista. Jedna teorija tvrdi da su postojala dva vala Slavena, Praslaveni (Veneti) i Slaveni, koji su se pomiješali i stvorili današnje Slavene. Ta teorija barem pokuašva riješiti vrlo složena pitanja koja proizlaze iz arheoloških nalaza u slavenskim područjima. Ukratko, nije sigurno gdje su Slaveni živjeli prije seobe na zapad. Prvi povijesni spomen Slavena smješta ih u područje močvara rijeke Pripyat (Poleška), ali znatan broj slavenskih riječi ima indoarijske oblike koji ukazuju na zajednički prajezik.
Nedavno se javila suprotna teorija, koja tvrdi da su Slaveni autohtoni još od vremena prije ledenog doba. Prema toj teoriji, Germani i Romani (Vlasi) nastali su zbog jezičnih promjena nakon osvajanja. Ta se teorija zasniva na genetici i teoriji razvitka ljudi u više centara, za razliku od ideje "svi iz Afrike", te tvrdi da je slavenska pradomovina uključivala područja koja Tacit navodi kao Germaniju. Uostalom, Tacit je pisao da je pojam "Germanija" u smislu domovine Germana nastao relativno nedavno (u 1. stoljeću).
Dodatnu zbrku unosi činjenica da su neki slavenski narodi nastali zbog potpune asimilacije drevnih neslavenskih naroda. Tako se korijeni današnjih Bugara mogu naći u Srednjoj Aziji. Tu spadaju i mitovi o iranskom porijeklu Hrvata i vandalskom porijeklu Poljaka.
Slaveni se u prvim povijesnim zapisima javljaju kao Veneti ili Vendi, ali njihova veza s Vendima koje spominju Tacit, Ptolemej i Plinije ostaje nejasna, pa je sličnost između ta dva imena možda slučajna.
Raspravlja se i o vezi između Lužika i Slavena. Neki istraživači povezuju Lužike sa Slavenima, drugi s Germanima, a treći tvrde da su Lužici bili miješano pleme ili savez plemena različitih naroda. Lužici su imali keltske elemente, a spominju se i kao dio Vandala u Magna Germania, koja je pokrivala današnju Šlesku (nazvanu po Silingi-Vandalima). Grad Legnica (Liegnitz) u Šleskoj možda vuče korijen iz imena Lužika.
Kasniji pisci bilježili su Slavene kao Sklaveni, Skloveni i Anti. Jordanes navodi da se Veneti dijele na tri skupine: Venete, Ante i Sklavene. Tradicionalno se ime "Veneti" počelo vezati uz Zapadne Slavene, "Sklaveni" uz Južne Slavene, a "Anti" uz Istočne Slavene.
Čak i porijeklo riječi "Slaven" nije sigurno. Očito postoji sličnost s riječju "slovo", pa možda "Slaveni" znači "oni koji znaju govoriti", za razliku od "Nijemci", tj. njemaci, "oni koji ne znaju govoriti" (na sličan način su Grci skovali riječ "barbari"). Druga očita veza je riječ "slava", koja ima zajednički korijen sa "slovo" - kad je netko slavan, o njemu se širi glas.
Engleska riječ "slave" (rob) vuče korijen iz "Slaven", jer su u ranom srednjem vijeku Slaveni često bili robovi.
Kao prvo, vidi gornje poglavlje o porijeklu Slavena.
Slaveni se javljaju u povijesti kad se za Germanima i Keltima kreću na zapad u 5. i 6. stoljeću, vjerojatno pod pritiskom naroda iz Sibira i Istočne Europe (Huni, Avari, Bugari i Mađari). Tada su Slaveni naselili područje između Odre i Labe na sjeveru, zatim Češku, Moravsku, velik dio današnje Austrije, Panoniju i Balkan, te kod gornjeg toka rijeke Dnjepar.
Kad su se smjestili, Slaveni su uspostavili prve oblike država, kojima su upravljali knezovi s riznicom i vojskom, kao i prve klasne podjele, s plemićima koji su pristajali uz Franke i Sveto Rimsko Carstvo.
Karantanija, koja je pokrivala današnju Austriju i Sloveniju, bila je prva slavenska država, a stare države su i Samovo kraljevstvo, Nitra i Moravska. U tom razdoblju su postojale i države središnjih Slavena, kao što je Balatonska kneževina i Severani, ali širenje Mađara i Rumunja, kao i germanizacija Austrije razdvojili su sjeverne od južnih Slavena. U starijoj povijesti nije bilo nikakvog jedinstva slavenskih naroda, iako je povremeno bilo suradnje.
S obzirom da su Slaveni pokrivali golemo i raznoliko područje, pojavilo se nekoliko središta koja su radila na jedinstvu Slavena. U 19. stoljeću se pojavio pokret panslavenstva među intelektualcima, znanstvenicima i književnicima, ali rijetko je utjecao na praktičnu politiku, osim na Balkanu. Zagreb je bio vrlo jak centar te ideologije, pa se u njemu razvila klica onoga što će kasnije postati Jugoslavija. Nakon raspada diktatura u Jugoslaviji i SSSR-u krajem 1980-ih, mogućnost udruživanja Slavena manja je nego ikad prije.
U prvoj polovici 20. stoljeća, nacisti su forsirali ideju rasa i tvrdili da je germanska rasa nadređena slavenskoj, koja je trebala služiti kao roblje u Trećem Reichu. Međutim, te su se ideje ugasile s porazom Njemačke u 2. svj. ratu.
Vjerski se Slaveni tradicionalno dijele na dvije glavne skupine:
Postoje i Slaveni muslimani (Bošnjaci, Pomaci i Torbeši).
Naravno, u stvarnosti postoje katoličke, pravoslavne, protestantske i muslimanske manjine u svim tim zemljama. Razlika između katolika i pravoslavaca još je izraženija zbog dva pisma, latinice i ćirilice.
Славя́нские языки́ — группа родственных языков индоевропейской семьи; распространены на территории Европы и Азии. Общее число говорящих около 290 млн. человек.
Из других индоевропейских языков к славянским ближе всего балтийские языки.
Славянские языки подразделяют на восточнославянские, западнославянские и южнославянские.
Для записи современных славянских языков используются кириллица и латиница. Раньше использовались также глаголица и арабское письмо.